was born in Leningrad (St. Petersburg). In the 1990s, he worked in the field of informational journalism but was forced to abandon this activity in 2000 due to disagreement with the support of President Putin’s leadership of the editorial board. He participated in a number of advertising projects, worked as an editor in a publishing house. By political activism back in the late 2000s, he participated in the campaign for the protection of St. Petersburg’s historical center, in «The March of Dissent” and the actions of the “Strategy-31”. In 2014, he joined the anti-war movement to support the independence and integrity of Ukraine, took part in the demonstrations. Since the spring of 2014 participates in the project “Russian Monitor”. The contributing editor to one of the oldest Russian oppositional media “Kasparov.ru”. According to belief, he is a libertarian, regionalists, in favor of respect for human rights and the principle of reasonable laws.